IoT (Internet of Things)

With the rise of IoT, a whole new era is entering the market. The technologies that affect the growth of the IoT market can be listed as follows:

  • Miniaturization of hardware and embedded systems that create very complex applications.
  • Artificial intelligence and machine learning data analysis.
  • Machine-to-Machine (M2M) systems that enable IoT devices to communicate with each other to perform local transactions.
  • Cloud technology that can collect, analyze and combine data from millions of devices.
  • Wireless technologies such as Wi-Fi, 5G, Bluetooth, Li-Fi, LAN, and WAN.

Telemetry Protocols

IoT devices communicate using network protocols. The requirements of the IoT devices used for telemetry are:

  • Low power: Most IoT devices are powered by an internal battery. Thanks to new battery technologies, a battery has a life span of 10 to 20 years.
  • Low-code footprint: IoT devices should be as small as possible. Requires protocols that do not need heavy computing or wireless power.
  • Low bandwidth: High bandwidth transmission technologies require more power and extra hardware footprint.
  • Local intelligent IoT Gateways: The closer these systems are to the IoT device, the less power it is possible to transmit.
    IoT telemetry communication is performed through different protocols. Each has its pros and cons.

These protocols are:

  • MQTT: Message Queuing Telemetry Transfer Protocol uses the broadcast-subscriber approach during broadcasting and receiving data. Requires an intelligent IoT gateway.
  • CoAP: Restricted Application Protocol, designed for devices restricted by low-power and high-loss networks. It works in UDP and can be converted to http. CoAP can be routed over IP networks and supports IP multicasting for M2M communication between other IoT devices.
  • HTTP – This protocol is usually combined with the Restful API protocol and can be routed over the internet; however, it is unsafe.
  • HTTPS – This protocol is secure and robust; however, it has high power and processing requirements to encrypt data traffic and requires remote management of certificates.